Cannabinoid Effects and Receptor Site Activation

Note that many of the primary medicinal effects of cannabis come from several different cannabinoids located in the plant. 

The receptor pathways include the most prevalent CB1 and CB2 receptor sites, as these are the primary receptors for THC and CBD, as well as Anandamide (the body's own endocannabinoid).

The CBD mechanisms include activation of CB1, 5-HT1A, PPAR, TRPV1, as well as TNF receptor sites located on the cell membranes. Other mechanisms of action include Ca2+ ionic movement affecting membrane permeability, and subsequent alteration in synaptic transmission. In addition, through reduction of FAAH (Fatty Acid Amine Hydrolase) which is the enzyme that degrades cannabinoids and Anandamide, the levels of cannabinoids are prolonged and longer lasting.

For bone stimulation and repair, and increased osteoblastic activity, this occurs predominantly from the CBDV, CBG, THCV components, in addition to CBD. As shown in the graph, CB2 receptors are activated by THCV to act as a bone stimulant.

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